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A put is a type of option contract that gives the owner the right to sell a stock at a certain fixed price within a specified timeframe.

Why It's Important
Puts are the opposite of the word we discussed last week, Call Options.  Take a look at the example in that post to get a good idea of how options work.  I won't belabor the point here.  But, I do want you to understand that a put option becomes more valuable as the price of the underlying stock depreciates relative to the strike price.  

Put options are a short position that lets you take advantage of price drops in the market.  Calls are more commonly used but Puts can be another way to hedge.

There are pros and cons to trading options.  As always, do your research!

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A call is a type of options contract that gives the owner the right to buy a stock at a certain fixed price within a specified timeframe.

Why It's Important
As I discussed in last week's word, Options, they are a good way to hedge against a downturn in the market if used correctly.  Let's take an example:

Let's say a stock trades at $100 per share, and I think it's going to go up pretty soon. I  could potentially buy 100 shares of stock, paying $10,000 OR I could buy a call option that would give you the right to pay $110 per share for stock any time in the next two months.  My buy-in for the option is typically $1-$2 per share.  So, I would pay $200 for that right at the high end.  This is a sunk cost (I'm not getting it back regardless of what happens).

If I'm right and the stock goes up to $130 per share by the time the option expires, then I can exercise my option and purchase the stock at $110, therefore, making a profit of $20 per share...

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In this episode, Tiffany sits down with Calvin Williams, Jr. owner of Freeman Capital. They discuss everything from post-slavery wealth in their families to real estate and changing the narrative for future generations. 

About Our Guest
Calvin F. Williams, Jr. is the first black owner of an automated wealth management platform for retail customers. As the CEO and founder of, he aims to empower millennials and the middle class with the tools to become wealthy.

Williams’ years of financial service experience along with lessons inspired by his great-grandparents ignited the inception of They knew they couldn’t get ahead from saving alone, their money had to work harder for them, so they used their savings and purchased properties in Washington, DC. Before it was acceptable by people of color in the 1950s Freeman Capital is for all hardworking people looking for a better future.

Freeman Capital has completed Google for Start-Ups,...

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An option is a contract that gives the buyer the right, not the obligation, to buy or sell an asset at a certain price in the future.

Why It's Important
Options play an important part in some portfolios as a way to hedge (arbitrage) against loss.  Although you can purchase options on bonds, stocks, and futures, stocks are typically the go-to.  So, how does it work?  Let's use a simplified example.

Let's say I think Apple is going to go up.  I pay a fee (or premium) to purchase a call (buy) option for the current price.  This means as Apple climbs in value I can exercise my call option to get the stock for a lower price.  But, let's say the stock goes down, I can opt to not exercise my option and just let it expire.  If that's the case, I only lose the premium that I paid for it.  

On the other side of the table, if I were the person selling the contract, I would lose money as the price went up and gain money if the buyer decided not to...

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A broker-dealer is any person or firm engaged in the business of buying and selling securities for the accounts of others or its own account. 

Why It's Important
You may be thinking that is an expansive definition. Well, it is and for a good reason! A brokerage acts as a broker when it buys and sells for its customers and as a dealer when it buys and sells for itself. Broker-dealers can range from small, independent, boutique firms to subsidiaries of big banks and investment companies. There are over 3,700 broker-dealers in the US to choose from! 

The big three (as of October 2018) are:

  1. Fidelity Investments ($6.85 trillion under management)
  2. Charles Schwab ($1.85 trillion under management)
  3. Wells Fargo ($1.6 trillion under management)

One role of a broker-dealer is to underwrite (distribute) new securities for issuers. Broker-dealers are powerful entities and essential for the flow of the market! A lot of financial advisors work under a broker-dealer, which is...

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Oh, investing!  This is Tiffany's absolute favorite topic to talk about.  Angela Matthews sits down with her to discuss how she got started and some strategies she uses to make smarter investment decisions.  Definitely have a pen and paper ready because they dropped so many gems!

About our Guest
Angela E. Matthews is a thought leader and expert in the Personal Finance space, particularly investing. She is the founder of the Happy Investor Method, which has a mission to impact millions by helping them create millions. With the goal of achieving financial freedom for everyone through investing in the stock market, Angela has single-handedly created a movement. For people who strive to be happier with their money and their achievements, Angela is your go-to.

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A portfolio's turnover rate measures the level of buying and selling of investments. You will typically see a turnover ratio when analyzing mutual and index funds. They are the same thing.

Why It's Important
High turnover rates can lead to higher portfolio expenses. Not only that but usually, if a portfolio has a high turnover rate or ratio, the more taxes you will potentially have to pay. Once a position is sold out of the portfolio, you will either have a capital gain or a capital loss. A good advisor will attempt to make sure your gains and losses offset so that you will not have additional tax implications. But this is not always possible. Paying attention to the turnover rate is super important to avoid a tax headache later.

If you are investing in a taxable account, it is best to look for tax-advantaged funds or ones with low turnover. Tax-deferred or tax-free accounts (such as IRAs and 401ks) do not matter quite as much since you are not...

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A transaction fee is a fee charged by a brokerage firm for every trade that takes place. These fees can range from $0 to $9.95, depending on the firm.

Why It's Important
Transaction fees are significant because anytime you make a buy or sell trade in your account, you're charged that fee. So, let's say you need to sell out of investments and invest in something different. You will have to pay that fee not once but twice for each investment. Let's say the fee is $4.95 per transaction; you would have to pay $9.90 per investment to sell then subsequently buy a new security. Multiply that by how many investments you are trying to get rid of, and it could be quite expensive. I have seen situations where an investor paid hundreds of dollars just in fees to get out of bad investments!

Transaction fees are becoming a little less important because most of the brokerage firms have moved to $0 fees this year. Among the firms that have made the change are Ally Invest, Charles Schwab, TD...

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A mutual fund is a pool of managed investments. These funds are usually managed by a portfolio manager to keep them in line with their investment objectives.

Why It's Important
The best way to think of mutual funds is as a basket. When you purchase shares of mutual funds, you are purchasing a basket of different stocks or bonds. I love mutual funds, and that's typically all I invest in. 

Mutual fund benefits include professional management, diversification, liquidity, and brokerage commission savings. You are pretty much paying a mutual fund company to create a basket of stocks that meet your investing needs. For instance, you can find mutual funds of marijuana companies, international companies, and even companies that focus on sustainability. There were over 9,600 mutual funds available on the market as of 2018. So, there is plenty to choose from! You save on brokerage commissions because if you were buying individual stocks, it would be way more expensive. Some...

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An accredited investor is a person or business that is authorized to buy and sell securities without being registered through the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) 

Why It's Important
An accredited investor can invest in a variety of unregistered investments such as hedge funds, venture capital, and private equity opportunities.  But, of course, this status is not open to everyone.  In order to gain the status of accredited investor, you have to meet two different criteria:

  1. The individual must have earned income exceeding $200,000 or $300,000 when combined with a spouse during each of the past two years with the expectation that it will continue.
  2. The net worth of the individual or couple must exceed $1 million (excluding the primary residence)

Now, as I said before, it doesn't have to be individuals.  It could be a trust or any entity that meets the requirements.  

Eventually, I want to become an accredited investor!  All in due time!

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